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Sida cordifolia

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Sida cordifolia
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Sida
S. cordifolia
Binomial name
Sida cordifolia

Sida cordifolia ('ilima,[1] flannel weed,[2] bala, country mallow or heart-leaf sida) is a perennial subshrub of the mallow family Malvaceae native to India. It has naturalized throughout the world, and is considered an invasive weed in Africa, Australia, the southern United States, Hawaiian Islands, New Guinea, and French Polynesia.[3][4][5] The specific name, cordifolia, refers to the heart-shaped leaf.[4][6]


Sida cordifolia is an erect perennial that reaches 50 to 200 cm (20 to 79 in) tall, with the entire plant covered with soft white felt-like hair that is responsible for one of its common names, "flannel weed". The stems are yellow-green, hairy, long, and slender. The yellow-green leaves are oblong-ovate, covered with hairs, and 3.5 to 7.5 cm (1.4 to 3.0 in) long by 2.5 to 6 cm (0.98 to 2.36 in) wide. The flowers are dark yellow, sometimes with a darker orange center, with a hairy 5-lobed calyx and 5-lobed corolla.[4]

As a weed, it invades cultivated and overgrazed fields, competing with more desired species and contaminating hay.[7]

Medicinal use[edit]

in Hyderabad, India.

Sida cordifolia is used in Ayurvedic medicine (Sanskrit:-BALA).[8]

Known as "malva branca", it is a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, blennorrhea, asthmatic bronchitis and nasal congestion,[9] stomatitis, of asthma and nasal congestion[10] and in many parts of Africa for various ailments, particularly for respiratory problems.[11] It has been investigated as an anti-inflammatory,[12][13] for preventing cell proliferation,[14] and for encouraging liver re-growth.[15] Because of its ephedrine content, it possesses psychostimulant properties, affecting the central nervous system and also the heart.[16]

Sida cordifolia flower


The following alkaloids were reported from S. cordifolia growing in India:[17] β-phenethylamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, S-(+)-Nb-methyltryptophan methyl ester, hypaphorine, vasicinone, vasicinol, choline, and betaine.

No tannin or glycosides have been identified from the plant. The roots and stems contain the alkaloid ephedrine, normally observed in the different varieties of the gymnosperm genus Ephedra. Recent analyses have revealed that ephedrine and pseudoephedrine constitute the major alkaloids from the aerial parts of the plant, which also show traces of sitosterol and palmitic, stearic and hexacosanoic acids. Two flavanones—5,7-dihydroxy-3-isoprenyl flavone and 5-hydroxy-3-isoprenyl flavone—and two phytosterolsβ-sitosterol and stigmasterol—have been isolated from the plant.[18] The analgesic alkaloid (5′-Hydroxymethyl-1′-(1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-pyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-1-yl)-heptan-1-one) has also been found.[19] Sterculic acid, malvalic acid, and coronaric acid have been isolated from the seed oil, along with other fatty acids.[20]


  1. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Sida cordifolia". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ "Invasive and Noxious Weeds". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  4. ^ a b c William Thomas Parsons; Eric George Cuthbertson (March 2001). Noxious weeds of Australia. Csiro Publishing. pp. 511–. ISBN 978-0-643-06514-7. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  5. ^ C. W. Agyakwa; I. O. Akobundu (1998). A handbook of West African weeds. IITA. pp. 563–. ISBN 978-978-131-129-1. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  6. ^ "Sida cordifolia". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 2006-10-25. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  7. ^ Pitt, J. L. (March 1, 2002). "Flannel Weed" (PDF). Agnote. ISSN 0157-8243. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  8. ^ Pole, Sebastian (2006). Ayurvedic Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-443-10090-1. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  9. ^ Franzotti, EM; Santos, CV; Rodrigues, HM; Mourão, RH; Andrade, MR; Antoniolli, AR (2000). "Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca)". J. Ethnopharmacol. 72 (1–2): 273–7. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00205-1. PMID 10967481.
  10. ^ Franco, CI; Morais, LC; Quintans-Júnior, LJ; Almeida, RN; Antoniolli, AR (2005). "CNS pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. leaves". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 98 (3): 275–279. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.008. PMID 15814259.
  11. ^ Markus S. Mueller; Ernst Mechler (2005). Medicinal Plants in Tropical Countries: Traditional Use - Experience - Facts. Thieme. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-13-138341-9. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  12. ^ Franzotti, EM; Santos, CV; Rodrigues, HM; Mourão, RH; Andrade, MR; Antoniolli, AR (Sep 2000). "Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca)". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 72 (1–2): 273–7. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00205-1. ISSN 0378-8741. PMID 10967481.
  13. ^ Kanth, VR; Diwan, PV (Feb 1999). "Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities of Sida cordifolia". Phytotherapy Research. 13 (1): 75–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199902)13:1<75::AID-PTR387>3.0.CO;2-F. ISSN 0951-418X. PMID 10189958.
  14. ^ Jenny, M; Schwaiger, W; Bernhard, D; Wrulich, OA; Cosaceanu, D; Fuchs, D; Ueberall, F (Sep 2005). "Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2". Journal of Carcinogenesis. 4: 15. doi:10.1186/1477-3163-4-15. PMC 1232859. PMID 16138918.
  15. ^ Silva, RL; Melo, GB; Melo, VA; Antoniolli, AR; Michellone, PR; Zucoloto, S; Picinato, MA; Franco, CF; Mota, GDE; Castro e Silva, Orlando DE (2006). "Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy". Acta Cirurgica Brasileira. 21 (Suppl 1): 37–9. doi:10.1590/S0102-86502006000700009. ISSN 0102-8650. PMID 17013511.
  16. ^ Adam C. Munhall; Steven W. Johnson (January 2006). "Dopamine-mediated actions of ephedrine in the rat substantia nigra". Brain Research. 1069 (1): 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.11.044. PMID 16386715. S2CID 40626692.
  17. ^ Ghosal, S.; Chauhan, R. B. P. S.; Mehta, R. (1975). "Alkaloids of Sidia cordifolia". Phytochemistry. 14 (3): 830–832. Bibcode:1975PChem..14..830G. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(75)83057-3.
  18. ^ Sutradhar, R.K.; Rahman, A.K.M.M.; Ahmad, M.U.; Bachar, S.C. (2008). "Bioactive flavones of Sida cordifolia". Phytochemistry Letters. 1 (4): 179–182. Bibcode:2008PChL....1..179S. doi:10.1016/j.phytol.2008.09.004.
  19. ^ Sutradhar, R.K.; Matior Rahman, A.K.M.; Ahmad, M.; Bachar, S.C.; Saha, A.; Guha, S.K. (2006). "Bioactive alkaloid from Sida cordifolia Linn. with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities". Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5 (2): 175–178.
  20. ^ Farooqi, J.A.; Ahmad, M. (1985). "Sida cordifolia seed oil a rich source of hydrogen bromide reactive fatty acids". Chemistry & Industry (14): 483–484.

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